Techniques for finding the referential meaning of a series of related words
Referential and Emotive meanings
Three ways to describe domains of referential meaning
1.By identifying the internal content of a domain:
Either by listing the referents in question or defining the necessary and sufficient features which will include the referents in question
2.By contrasting the domain of one word with that of others:
Defines the boarders between this and other semantically contiguous symbols
3.By showing the extent to which the area of a particular word may be shared by other words:
That is, by listing synonyms-in fact this last method is a blend of the first two methods.
Description of domains
One may deal with groups of related words
- Numerals, color words, kinship terms
One must also deal with individual words which does not have any structured relationship to other terms
- Sun, house, grass, stick
General features of hierarchical structuring
1. As one ascends the hierarchical structure the terms generally become fewer and the domains larger.
2. The same word may occur on different levels: it may have a more particular as well as a more general meaning:
“Animal” low level substitute if it includes wolf, sheep, dog, cat; but may also substitute for much wider class of creatures, including man, fish, and birds. General substitute – animal, vegetable, mineral.
3. The identity of domains, both in terms of extent and level, determines to some extent the degree of synonymity between words.
Problem in deciding on the linguistic meaning because the source text is ambiguous
Si Chicquita Jean Hood, may palayaw na “Chickie,” ay ipinanganak sa probinsya ng Alabama at pinalaki siyang napapaligiran ng maliit na bukirin.
Does this mean those whose house are near their house (kapit-bahay)
Does this mean neighboring villages (kalapit-bayan)
exploring contrasts in the semantic field
Exploring the semantic field will yield meanings such as:
He will cut her life’s natural flow
He will block her life’s natural flow
»Which doesn’t give a full meaning; but only part of it. The implied meaning is that He had the right to “be in control” (the linguistic hint is in – “change her plans”)
Control – be in charge/ be on the lead/ have the say = positive
What is meant by the cluster: “practical joke”?
Do you absolutely need the word “practical” in Tagalog?
Does an exact equivalent exist?
In Tagalog this was translated as : She was always laughing and joking.
Almost a cliché in English
Both words mean one thing only – safe from danger; or secure from danger
Both words transfer in the same word “ligtas”
So “ ligtas at ligtas”
Advantage: a greater facility whereby ambiguous expression can be analyzed
Kernel 1: he hit the man and he hit with a stick
Kernel 2: he hit the man and the man had a stick
Kernel 1: the fat major has a wife
Kernel 2: the major has a fat wife
Steps in “decomposition and recomposition”
1.Analyze the source language expression in terms of the basic kernel sentences and transforms required to produce the utterance, while adding all implicit objects, events, abstracts or relationships which are required by the processes of transformation.
2.Transfer the kernel forms of the source language to the equivalent kernel forms for the receptor language.
3.Transform the kernel utterances of the receptor language into the stylistically appropriate expressions.
object; action; event; goal jumble
–That a new generation of young people
–Would be challenged and inspired
–To become a friend to the Muslims
–Bringing God’s blessing to them
–Ang bagong henerasyon ng mga kabataan
–Hamunin at bigyan ng inspirasyon ang bagong henerasyon
–Makipagkaibigan sa mga Muslim
–Maging tagapagdala ng biyaya ng Diyos sa kanila
–Gayunman, tatlong taon bago ito mangyari, walang alam ang mundo o hindi nito pinapansin ang mas masaklap na trahedya kaysa sa pagsakop sa bansang Kuwait.
–Tatlong taon bago ito mangyari – three years before this happened
–Nang nakaraang tatlong taon – in the past three years (literal equivalent is vague and awkward when used unless the linguistic context is stretched, that is, nang nakaraang tatlong taon bago ito mangyari – in the past three years before this happened)