English to Tagalog problems in translation consider the linguistic category - whether it be semantic, syntactic or pragmatic - when deciding on an interpretation or equivalent.
What is a semantic problem?
A semantic problem is when you search and aim for exact equivalents or interpretations of words or phrases. Matching vocabulary is fun and exciting when translations are available, but what happens in translation is mostly approximations. When a word or phrase does not have an exact equivalent in Tagalog or in English, the solution is to search for that terminal meaning in an expression which will have the same cultural register. Meaning of words (codes, symbols, language) aren't simply always what they appear to be - they need to be interpreted according to their immediate context, displaced context, or transferred context. But even after understanding the exact context, and after exhausting the cultural implications, the terminal meaning may still be inaccessible.
Question: Ano sa palagay mo?
("What do you think?")
(Translation: "Up you you," or "You do the thinking yourself", or "You decide.")
The semantic solutions given here remain on the literal level as long as the word "You" (Ikaw) is present. But what is lost in the English to Tagalog problem solution is the performance aspect of the expression, or the emotive aspect of the speech act. This one is actually a pragmatic problem and well, it is difficult to solve.
Question: Paano ka na?
("So what will happen to you now?")
Answer: Bahala na....
(Translation: "Fate will Decide" or "It's up to Fate")
Both English to Tagalog equivalents above are lame approximations. Again, all the emotive aspects are lost. Clearly, when it comes to semantic problems, you may find equivalents but those won't always be enough to put the exact meaning across.
Question: Bakit mo ginawa yon?
("Why did you do that?")
Answer: Wala lang...
(Translation: "Nothing", or "It doesn't matter" or "Who cares?")
Clearly, every implication in "Wala lang" is completely lost in translation. Again, the pragmatic aspect must be considered in searching for an equivalent here. The semantic field of "wala lang" is completely not apparent and thus, a semantic solution is not enough. Notes and references may become necessary to explain some decisions.
First, find the exact equivalent. If there is no exact equivalent, use the nearest exact equivalent. If the nearest exact equivalent is still not within reach or non-existent, then use the borrowed equivalent. If a borrowed equivalent is impossible, access the cultural equivalent. And so goes the process of pragmatic routine and standard operation in translation. Finding an equivalent is always challenging because no transfer is ever simple. In translation, trying to solve English to Tagalog problems is always the rule rather than the exception.